The Piraeus Bank Group Cultural Foundation (PIOP), in collaboration with notable Greek scientific entities (universities and research centres), carries out research programmes that correspond to its statutory goals, in particular that of inventorying, preserving and highlighting pre-industrial technology, but also that of valorising the cultural heritage it relates to. These programmes constitute an integral part of the Foundation's threefold action: research - exhibition - publication. Furthermore, they are conceived on an interdisciplinary basis and in such a manner that their results might be exploited on different levels, such as for the creation of thematic technological museums that can rejoin the Foundation's Museum Network in the Greek provinces, the organization of exhibitions, the publication of books and the digitization of scientific data that contribute to the advancement of research.
The objective of the Research and Promotion Department is to implement PIOP's statutory goals:
with a strategic goal of:
- generating the relevant basic research, as well as comparative studies,
- expanding the existing cultural products and developing new ones,
- exploiting and disseminating the research results and the scientific work produced to broader groups of the public,
- networking with international and Greek research centres, universities, organizations and policy-making public institutions on culture-related subjects,
- creating the necessary research infrastructure so as to facilitate the Foundation's work;
with a main axis around which research activity focuses, i.e. inventorying and promoting Greece's pre-industrial heritage and carrying out an in-depth study of Modern Greek society's technical and economic facets;
with basic thematic axes as regards the enrichment of the Foundation's research infrastructure (Library, Photographic Archives, Drawing Cabinet), namely technology & traditional techniques, pre-industrial production, material civilization, industrial archaeology, museology, museum studies, cultural management, economic history, new research technologies regarding culture;
with a central methodology based on interdisciplinary research carried out by groups of external collaborators, who interact and simultaneously complement each other (historians, archaeologists, ethnologists, anthropologists, architects, mechanical engineers, etc.), under the supervision of scientific consultants and in collaboration with Greek universities and research centres; and,
with a competitive advantage resulting from the long-term, clearly discernible and specialized experience in the specific areas of research and the development of relevant innovation.
Over the past, the Foundation has been responsible for carrying out studies relating, among others, to: sericulture and silk manufacturing; tanning; hydraulic power; the history and technology (pre-industrial and industrial) of olive production; the technology of paper production and typography/printing; brickworks and roof tile manufacturing; the crafts related to carving and sculpting marble; traditional occupations in the regions of Stymfalia, Pelion and the Aegean; technology in Greece's Venetian-occupied regions; and, the technology of traditional Greek musical instruments. In a totally complementary manner, therefore, archaeological/in situ research is undertaken alongside a historical/ethnographic inventorying -which is also based on oral history-, recourse to the archives of companies and services/institutional organs, architectural measure drawing, mechanical surveys and drawings of the existing situation and the photographing/filming of buildings and techniques. The results of these research studies also serve as the basis of small itinerant exhibitions, publications (which often lay down the initial foundations of existing bibliography) and other applications.
More specifically, the following research programmes have been completed, while their specific goals, sub-themes, main findings and principal participants are briefly presented below:
- Sericulture-Silk manufacturing
- With the force of water
- Footpaths of the Loussios valley
- The flora of the Loussios valley
- The region of Anavryti on Mount Taygettus
- The region of Dipotamata on Andros
- The region of Eggares on Naxos
- Valorisation of a watermill and a windmill on Chios
- Lumbering in Falanthos (Mount Mainalon)
- The water saw at the Monastery of Simonos Petra
- Pre-industrial technology in the town of Livadia
- Construction of models of traditional mechanical devices
- The olive and olive oil in Greece
- Olive-oil routes
- The cultural reserve of the Peloponnese
- The antimony mines in Keramos on Chios
- Lavrion Historical Archaeological Park
- The mines of Serifos
- The history of Greek typography
- The technology of paper
- Watermarks of the Benaki Museum's collections
- Information on technology from the Archives
and Libraries of Venice
- Brick and tile manufacturing
- Marble carving and sculpting
- The technology of silver-smithing
- Traditional occupations and environment in Stymfalia
- Musical events in Northern Greece
- Letter-cards of Crete
- Philharmonic Society of Corfu
- Register of Greek Industrial Heritage
- Scientific research for the planning of parallel activities
at the Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil
concerning an exhibition and the screening of a
documentary on Greek emigration to the USA
- History of industry in Thessaloniki
Furthermore, the following research programmes are currently in progress:
- Inventory of traditional workshops and
cottage industries in Pelion
- The craft of tinsmith in the 20th century
- Chios mastic gum
- Register of companies and entrepreneurs
of the prefecture of Messinia
- The production and trade of currants in the Western Peloponnese
- Egyptian cotton
- Inventory of the industrial heritage of Albania
- The history of the Lyceum Club of Greek Women
- Archive of Musical Iconography
Sericulture-Silk manufacturing: A research programme aimed at investigating sericulture and silk manufacturing methods, which offered the material for the museological programme of the Silk Museum in Soufli (Thrace) and the relevant publication; the programme's extension formed the basis of the renewal and reorganization of the Museum's exhibits in 2009. The gathering of the necessary data and graphic material was carried out through bibliographical and archival research, mainly in local archives, and was completed by in situ research work. The project focused on the introduction of silk farming in Greece and investigated the production and processing procedures, from the cocoon to silk fabric; the economic history of silk and the development of the silk industry in Soufli over the last decades of the 19th century; and, the influence of sericulture on the town's architecture and urban organization («bidziklikia» or «koukoulospita», literally «cocooneries», the houses built to cover the needs of large-scale sericulture, from the Greek koukouli meaning cocoon).
The programme was completed with detailed information on the history of silk during the Byzantine era. Thus, the silk trade (of both yarns and fabrics) in Constantinople (9th-12th century), the problems relating to the silk trade, the relevant workshops in the capital and the provinces, the decoration of silk fabrics together with the information this offers about the weaving technology (and, consequently, on how textile production was organized), the dyeing materials, the Byzantine purple silks and kekolymena fabrics (i.e. whose export was subjected to a special authorization or even forbidden), as well as the people allowed to wear silk, are among the aspects of the research work covering the Byzantine period.
Furthermore, research data was collected on the processing of silk yarn and on the fibre's technical characteristics as a weaving and embroidery material, on the historical evolution of silk fabrics and of the working tools and implements in the Eastern Mediterranean, on silk textiles with a simple or a complex structure (Roman, early Christian and Byzantine eras), on the categories of complex structured weaving techniques according to their technical characteristics, on the relations and interactions between the Byzantine and Islamic weaving industry, on the historical evolution of weaving with a complex warp structure (China) and with a complex weft structure (Europe). The study of colouring substances mentioned in papyrus texts and the dyeing of samples of silk yarns, and, lastly, the technological analysis of post-Byzantine textiles were also included in this research programme.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Maria Gerolymatou [research associate, Institute for Byzantine Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (IBR/EIE)], Panayiota Gagoulia (architect), Pari Kalamara (archaeologist, Hellenic Ministry of Culture – Department of Museums, Exhibitions and Educational Programmes), Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist), Andromachi Economou (ethnologist), MichaliScientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Maria Gerolymatou [research associate, Institute for Byzantine Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (IBR/EIE)], Panayiota Gagoulia (architect), Pari Kalamara (archaeologist, Hellenic Ministry of Culture - Department of Museums, Exhibitions and Educational Programmes), Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist), Andromachi Economou (ethnologist), Michalis Riginos (historian), Sofia Tsourinaki (technology specialist of antique textiles, professor of weaving)
Project Presentation (in greek)
With the force of water: A vast research programme aimed at studying waterpower, tanning and gunpowder manufacturing, whose results were exploited with the creation of the Open Air Waterpower Museum in Dimitsan (Peloponnese) and the publication of the related studies, pedagogical brochures and cultural guides on the broader region of the Loussios River.
In particular, in order to draft the Museum's museological/museographical study, preliminary research was necessary so as to locate and inventory all the water-powered installations in the broader region surrounding the bed of the Loussios River, from the village of Karkalou to the bridge of Polygeni in Ancient Gortyna, and comprising the fountainheads and the torrents that flow into it. In this region, over the entire pre-industrial period, water constituted the main source of energy for powering the workshops alongside the parallel/secondary vital source of energy (people and animals) used to mill cereals, tanning material and building rubble. Data collection was based on in situ research, which was completed both through oral interviews with local inhabitants who had worked in water-powered workshops and by consulting historical testimonies in local church archives. The existence of 60 buildings was established, responsible for housing a total of 91 water-powered installations: watermills, fulling mills, powder mills, together with the corresponding grinders-driers for the gunpowder's "corning" (i.e. its shaping into identical-sized "corns" or granules for an even explosion), tabakomyloi or tanning mills (grinders for the tanning material used in the tan yards) and water-saws. The research work gave rise to a classification of these installations, both chronologically and in terms of their typology on the basis of their morphological and technological characteristics, and also enriched our knowledge on how they functioned and the needs they served on the level of the local economy.
In total, around 500 water-powered installations were located in the prefecture of Arkadia, meaning that the whole of this region could be considered as an open-air museum of the manner in which water was channelled to the waterwheels, given that all the different types of millraces and water chutes encountered in Greece are preserved in good condition. All of the region's watermills are of the "Eastern" type with a small horizontal paddle wheel. A significant number among them is "two-eyed" (i.e. comprising two pairs of millstones), while in the village of Karytaina a "four-eyed" watermill was located, a unique phenomenon as regards pre-industrial technology installations. The size, shape and type of their slate or tiled roof depended on the owner's needs and the region's climate. More often than not, the mills form building complexes, so that each mill is supplied by the water discharged by the previous one, and usually include fulling mills. Water saws, oil presses, tanning mills and kourasanomyloi (mills for grinding a mixture of broken bricks and tiles used as building material) were also encountered*.
Beyond locating the workshops, the research programme's goal was to identify the informers, i.e. the craftsmen who would assist in recording the techniques used in the past. In the case of tanning, the research work focused on Dimitsana, Zatouna, Tripolis, the village of Anavryti on Mount Taygettus and Kalamata, at the same time as on the town of Amfissa on the mainland (where certain tanning yards continued to be active), and showed that, up to the 1950s and 1960s, tanning was a booming industry that provisioned a chain of other activities. The supply of animal hides, acorns and lime, the manufacturing of leather goods and their market distribution, the use of animal hair and wool were instrumental in maintaining a cycle of commercial relations and cultural exchanges with Crete, the region of Aitoloakarnania on the Greek mainland and the islands of the Eastern Aegean. In the 1970s, a series of factors led to most workshops being abandoned and forced craftsmen to either seek a different activity or introduce new techniques and methods. With the old method, the animal hides were processed exclusively with natural and vegetable matter, all the tanning phases were carried out manually using simple tools and the processing time was slow, while the tanner's art lay in his knowledge of the time needed for each processing phase. Though the old techniques survived for a certain time alongside the new ones, the intervention of chemistry, the reduction of time, changes in the products' quality and the restructuring in this branch of activity inexorably led to traditional techniques falling into total disuse**.
* Nomikos, Stefanos: "Erevna entopismou, katagrafi kai axiologisi hydrokiniton engatastaseon sto nomo Arkadias" (Research on the location, inventorying and assessment of water-powered installations in the prefecture of Arkadia), Technologia 9 (1999), 20-22.
** Zarkia, Cornelia: "Erevna gia tin proviomichaniki vyrsodepsia stin Peloponniso kai tin Amfissa" (Research on pre-industrial tanning in the Peloponnese and in Amfissa), Technologia 7 (1994), 48-50.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Christina Agriantoni (historian), Ilias Anagnostakis (byzantinologist), Cornelia Zarkia(architect/social anthropologist), Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist), Anna Mattheou (archaeologist), Evanghelia Balta (historian), Stefanos Nimikos (architect), Andromachi Economou (ethnologist), Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist), Ioanna Papantoniou (costume specialist), Athina Hadzidimitriou (archaeologist)
Footpaths of the Loussios valley: The programme's objective was to explore, record and mark out simple and more complex routes along which walkers and hikers can visit the region and discover both the natural habitat and the area's pre-industrial heritage. The promotion of the traditional footpaths along the Loussios River was pursued through the production of a film, a trekking-tourist map (in two languages) and a CD-Rom.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: CD-Rom: Triantafyllos Adamakopoulos (environmentalist), Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist), Stefanos Nomikos (architect), Andromachi Economou (ethnologist), Katerina Papakonstantinou (historian)
The flora of the Loussios valley: A preliminary survey was carried out so as to explore the possibility of creating a museum on the flora of the Loussios gorge, situated in an area belonging to the Municipality of Stemnitsa that features an abandoned watermill, with a view to promoting the region and its development, in combination with other works in this district.
Scientific coordinator / general coordinator: Dr Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist), Niki Zografou (archaeologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Themistoklis Adamopoulos (forester), Olga Lekou (architect), Stefanos Nomikos (architect), Isavella Papamantellou (architect), Terry Fourtouni (museologist)
The region of Anavryti on Mount Taygettus: The object of this research programme was to carry out a global intervention, based on the model elaborated for the region of the Loussios River, in order to promote the broader region surrounding the village of Anavryti on Mount Taygettus, including its cottage-industry installations (mills, rope-making workshops and shoemaking and leatherwork establishments) and footpaths.
Scientific coordinator: Dr Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Cornelia Zarkia (ethnologist), Sparta Alpine Club (environmental survey)
The region of Dipotamata on Andros: Following the invitation tendered by the Kairis Library of Andros, the Foundation participated in the project launched to preserve the region of Dipotamata on Andros, a small river flanked by stepped, cultivated fields (called paravoles or aimasies, i.e. small terraces defined by dry-stone walls) and along whose length there exists a multitude of abandoned, often derelict, watermill installations; in the past, these supplied the island with wheat and were connected to the bordering settlements through a network of stone-paved pathways. Despite the impression that, in the Cyclades islands, flour was produced essentially thanks to wind power, in some of these islands there functioned what by local standards was an important water-powered flour industry. On Andros, in particular, where running water was abundant in certain localities, the number of watermills must have been close to one hundred and in any case was far greater than the number of windmills. In the context of a broader programme, which concerned the protection of this valley, the restoration of the dry-stone walls and footpaths and the renewed functioning of one or two contiguous watermills, the creation of an open-air eco-museum was also envisaged so as to house a series of independent museum units in the existing buildings, dedicated to the flora, the fauna and the minerals of Andros, to waterpower and the activities of the island's inhabitants with, in parallel, a presentation of economic data and information on the production of local goods. In the course of the preliminary research, a total of 27 water towers were recorded in 24 sites that served the vicinity's villages. Hydraulic works are also to be found [bastounies: buttress walls profiling the riverbed, underground reservoirs with water drills, watering troughs, biles (dams), nichtoi or raceways covering large distances and of great importance for supplying the watermills and irrigating farmed land], as well as agricultural buildings (farms, animal pens and sheepfolds, threshing floors, dovecots), specimens of an enclosure system (essentially with stimata, i.e. standing stones incorporated into the dry-stone walls at regular intervals) and a dense network of footpaths and bridges connecting the various settlements to the fields, watermills and villages in the region of Chora. All of the above constitute an ergonomically structured system of constructions serving the productive processes, of particular ethnological interest, a historical monument of a culture that died out in the mid-20th century and of pre-industrial communities' obligatory intervention on their natural habitat*.
* Nomikos, Stefanos - Tsenoglou, Eleni: "Dimiourgia oikomouseiou sta Dipotamata tis Androu" (Creation of an eco-museum at Dipotamata on Andros), Technologia 10-11 (2001), 23-25.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Stefanos Nomikos (architect), Nelli Tsenoglou (ethnologist)
The region of Eggares on Naxos: On Naxos, the largest of the Cycladic islands, a dense network of settlements of over a thousand years continues to exist, as well as an important land transportation network made up of paths and stone-paved ways, which join each of the settlements to the others, the defensive positions to the places of agricultural production, the towns to the "exoches" ( a term designating both the countryside as such and the rural regions) and the rich families' estates. Following a request from the Community of Eggares concerning the valorisation of the region's watermill installations, a survey was carried out in order to mark out various itineraries in the valleys of the Municipality of Naxos. The proposed routes are "thematic", inasmuch as they primarily show off the watermills and other installations that make the most of the small seasonal quantities of water available to pre-industrial communities, but also offer hikers the opportunity of discovering, through short and relatively easy routes protected from the sun, the cultural ensemble of the valleys of Eggares-Knidaros, Melanes-Myloi and Potamia.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Stefanos Nomikos (architect), Katerina Charoni (economist-MSc Regional Studies), Katerina Zisimopoulou (architect student), Alexis Frangiadakis (architect student)
Valorisation of a watermill and a windmill on Chios: In the context of an international tripartite collaboration, a typical specimen of a late 19th century island watermill with a horizontal paddle wheel of the "Eastern" type (located in the vicinity of Trypes) and an equally characteristic specimen of a cylindrical Cycladic windmill of the same period (in Anemonas, in the region of Tholopotami) were proposed as a restoration project and were studied by the Foundation as representative forms of use of the two most widespread mild forms of energy, waterpower and wind power, in Greece and in particular in the sector of cereal milling.
Scientific research and documentation: Stefanos Nomikos (architect)
Lumbering in Falanthos (Mount Mainalon): Due to the successful operation of the Open Air Museum of Water-Power in Dimitsana, on the one hand, and the activities related to it both on a research level and with respect to the region's infrastructure and development following the Museum's creation, on the other, the Foundation's presence in the region of Mount Mainalon led the Municipality of Falanthos to call upon PIOP when it decided to explore the possibilities of exploiting and promoting the steam-powered sawmill located in the village of Chryssovitsi, one of the picturesque mountain villages of the prefecture of Arkadia, located 21km away from Tripolis at an altitude of 1,100m. The sawmill, which was the property of the Hellenic Ministry of Agriculture, was transferred to the Municipality and, though it had remained idle for over two decades, its mechanical equipment (steam engine, waterfall and saws) remained in good repair, while its role in the exploitation and protection of the forest was still within living memory. The Foundation carried out the necessary studies and surveys concerning the forest economy and lumbering on Mount Mainalon, a brief forestry and historical survey on the sawmill's existence, as well as a survey on the restoration of its mechanical equipment.
Scientific coordinator: Dr Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Asterios Zacharis (forester), Yiorgos Douros (forester), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer)
The water saw at the Monastery of Simonos Petra (Mount Athos): The Foundation carried out a research programme aimed at documenting the water saw at Monastery of Simonos Petra (or Simonopetra) on Mount Athos, which comprised the necessary historical/ethnographical archival research and architectural drawings. The objective was that of collecting archival documentary material on the construction and functioning of the water saws in the Monastery's vicinity during the 19th and 20th century, with a view to exploiting this material on various levels (construction of a model, production of a digital film, exhibition of working drawings). Furthermore, a series of brief studies were drafted for a publication on the history, natural habitat, architecture, monastic life, art and material civilization of the Monastery of Simonos Petra.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist/museologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Stavros Mamaloukos (architect), Stefanos Nomikos (architect), Father Porfyrios
Pre-industrial technology in the town of Livadia: A research programme titled The town of Livadia in the cotton culture. Economic development and urban conquest 19th-20th century was carried out, its objective being to record the history and technology relative to the processing of cotton in Livadia with a view to creating a Museum of Pre-industrial Technology on the shores of the river Herkyna, in the classified mills of the Papa?oannou and Bakas families.
The project comprised a historical and ethnographical survey of the relevant sectors of local history and the town's economy (which, to a large degree, was determined by "white coal", the waterpower supplied by the Herkyna River); it also entailed locating the relevant workshops through field research, their ethnological and historical documentation, and measure-drawings of their architecture and of their mechanical equipment wherever this still existed. A pilot sample of oral testimonies about cotton production in the town of Livadia was organized, in parallel to carrying out base studies on the economic history of cotton in Greece and the demographic evolution of both the town and its surrounding region. A particular emphasis was given to this agricultural product's impact on Livadia, to the business activities connected to cotton processing, and to technology transfer. Cotton entrepreneurs and the material remains of cotton culture in Livadia were also highlighted.
Scientific coordinator: Maria-Christina Hadzi?oannou [historian, research director at the Institute for Neohellenic Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (INE/EIE)]
Scientific research and documentation: Christina Agriantoni (professor of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly), Katerina Dede (historian), Dimitris Dimitropoulos (research associate, INE/EIE), Maria Thanopoulou [sociologist-researcher, Hellenic National Centre for Social Research (EKKE)], Dafni Lappa (archaeologist), Theodoros Paleologos (jurist), Nikos Belavilas (associate professor, Department of Architecture, NTUA), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Construction of models of traditional mechanical devices: Pursuing its statutory goals, PIOP inventories the apparatus used by traditional technology and makes use of the testimony of surviving craftsmen to construct models of these mechanisms, which can either be put into motion for demonstration purposes in the context of the affiliated museological programme, or can be exploited for research or pedagogical purposes. In this context, and following a proposal submitted by Ms. Popi Zora, six models were constructed (of a water saw, of the oil press in the home of the Paleologos-Benizelos family in Plaka and which is exhibited in Sparta's Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil, of a water-powered powder mill with a conical millstone, etc.), the Foundation's main collaborator in this project being architect Maria Malakou.
The olive and olive oil in Greece: Two broad, interrelated research programmes aimed at investigating the history and the technology (pre-industrial and industrial) that was developed around the production of olives and olive-oil in Greece provided the background information for the museological projects of the Museums of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil in Sparta and Industrial Olive-oil Production on Lesvos, and led to special publications that form part of the Foundation's series of Publications. The research work focused on the study and presentation of the technological evolution in the culture of the olive tree and the production of olive oil, from early antiquity through to the industrial era, in relation to their broader historical and socio-cultural context.
The Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil in Sparta (Peloponnese) was created so as to bring out and add value to the social, economic and cultural dimensions of olive cultivation both in the past and today, not only in the Peloponnese, but also in Greece as a whole and in the broader Mediterranean region, by presenting this subject through the ages and in contemporary times. A large interdisciplinary group covered the broad timeframe extending from early antiquity through to the contemporary industrial period by adhering to a common grid of thematic modules, which concerned: the methods of olive cultivation, technological innovations in olive-oil production in relation to the corresponding socioeconomic transformations, the storage and commercial trading of olive oil, its multiple uses, as well as its cultural and symbolic charge in each historical period's society. The analytical and typological study of olive-oil production techniques (which necessitated an inventory and identification of its different technological stages and phases, as well as finding the relevant documentation) was achieved by combining the tools of archaeology and ethnology.
For its part, the objective of the Museum of Industrial Olive-Oil Production of Lesvos is to promote the island's industrial heritage and highlight the relation existing between olive-oil production and the people of Lesvos. An initial approach of the question of olive cultivation and olive-oil production in Mytilini calls for the researcher to place the island and its economy in the context of the broader historical circumstances: in Ottoman history, as Lesvos was a province of the Ottoman Empire up to the early 20th century, relative to European states' economic, political and military presence in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 19th century, and with respect to the history of the Greek State, which the island rejoined in 1912. Within this framework, the relations and exchanges between the island and Asia Minor were examined, valuable conclusions were drawn from the indexing of an Ottoman ledger from Molyvos about olive cultivation in Lesvos, the social struggles around the olive and the "Leimonas issue" (the confrontation between the village elders of Kalloni and the Leimonas Monastery over the use of funds, which the former wanted to use for public schooling) were described, and the role of the Church in olive-oil production was analyzed. A brief survey of the olive press in Neochori resulted in the description of the settlement's architecture, social organization and history, completed by data on the architecture of this olive press.
In the course of studying the industrial phenomenon in Lesvos, particular emphasis was given to the question of the olive press in the village of Aghia Paraskevi, which was founded in the early 20th century on the initiative of the Taxiarchis Church (dedicated to the archangel Michael) and was communal property, commonly called "tou koinou i michani" (the people's machine). Its creation is proof of a double innovation in this agricultural world: the use of modern technological means to improve the production of olive oil and the progress of social ideas to the point where the creation of communal enterprises was proposed so as to defend the community's social interests. The "machine of the people" was created so as to free the peasants from the exploitation of privately-owned olive presses and to become a source of financial resources for the community's educational and social projects.
The research work also covered the evolution of steam- and diesel-powered machinery in the field of industrial olive-oil production, with specimens of machines and tools used at the Aghia Paraskevi olive press, and was accompanied by a search for the machine-makers of Lesvos' olive presses. The research programme was completed through the discovery and presentation of the thematic influence of the olive and olive oil on local literature and figurative art in Lesvos.
The civilization of the olive and olive oil
Scientific coordinator: Sofoklis Hadzisavvas (archaeologist, director of the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)
Scientific research and documentation: Ilias Anagnostakis (byzantinologist, research associate at Institute for Byzantine Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (IBR/EIE)], Evanghelos Velitzelos (professor, Department of Geology, University of Athens), Ioli Viggopoulou [research associate at Institute for Neohellenic Research/National Hellenic Research Foundation (INE/EIE)], Dimitra Yannopoulou (archaeologist), Evanghelia Eleftheriou (archaeologist), Nikos Karapidakis (professor of History, Ionian University), Marilena Katsilieri (historian-ethnologist), Dimitris Kourkoumelis (archaeologist), Paraskevi Konti (senior research associate, IBR/EIE), Anna Lambropoulou (research director, ÊÂÅ/ÅÉÅ), Anna Mattheou (archaeologist), Angeliki Mexia (archaeologist), Afentra Moutzali (archaeologist, 18th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities), Panayiota Baghetakou (archaeologist), Evanghelia Balta (historian, research associate INE/EIE), Christos Boulotis (archaeologist, Research Centre for Antiquity, Academy of Athens), Yiorgos Bourazanis (agriculturalist), Andromachi Economou (ethnologist), Anthi Papayannaki (archaeologist), Angeliki Panopoulou (research associate IBR/EIE), Yannis Pikoulas (professor, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer), K. Pontikis (professor of Agronomy), Sofoklis Hadzisavvas (archaeologist, director of the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)
Industrial olive oil production in Lesvos
Scientific coordinator: Evridiki Sifneos (research associate INE/EIE)
Scientific research and documentation: Ilias Anagnostakis (byzantinologist, research associate IBR/EIE), Stratis Anagnostou (historian, doctoral student of the Department of Geography, University of the Aegean), Agla?a Archontidou (archaeologist, head of the 20th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities), Stella Demesticha (archaeologist), Eleftheria Ze? (historian), Eleni Karanastassi (archivist, Historical Archives of Macedonia), Sofia Koufopoulou (sociologist/jurist), Panayiotis Michailaris (research associate INE/EIE), Evanghelia Balta (historian, research associate INE/EIE), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer), Ourania Polykandrioti (research associate INE/EIE), Irini Chryssocheri (art historian), Stratis Frantzeskos (architect engineer), Fehmi Yilmaz (lecturer, Marmara Universitesi, Istanbul)
Olive-oil routes: olive presses in the South-East Peloponnese (Lakonia-Messinia) during antiquity: The origins of olive cultivation and the accompanying extraction of olive oil as a productive process are lost in time, corresponding to a lifespan of millennia and a condensed experience of innumerable years. Our knowledge of it through written sources ¯Greek and Latin authors from Ancient and Byzantine times¯ is documented by scarce archaeological data, which are being completed as far as possible with information about the contemporary productive process, and in particular that dating to before the Second World War.
In order to locate the remains of the civilization of the olive and olive oil in the Peloponnese, a special survey was carried out, which comes under the scientific field of historical topography, i.e. a combination of history, archaeology and geography, while field research focused on locations other than the usual tourist destinations and are proposed only to those interested in searching, familiar with cross-country hiking and attracted by the unknown - and not daunted by the unexpected. The field research centred on the area of the Eastern and Southern Peloponnese [i.e. the regions of Lakonia (Kato Parnonas, Geraki, Molaoi, Lambokampos, Maleas, the Mani), Messinia (Soulimochoria, Meligalas, Kalamata, Vromovrysseika Vouna, Gargalianoi, Kyparissia, Pylia) and Achaia (excavated houses in the surrounds of Patras)], and includes additional material from the rest of Greece (from both the mainland and the islands) so as to allow comparisons. The project's results enriched the visual material of the Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil in Sparta and gave rise to a special publication, which provides information in a concise yet comprehensive manner on the cycle of olive cultivation, and in particular on the process of olive-oil extraction during antiquity, using as visual material all the relative elements that can still be found in the Peloponnesian countryside. It thus offers a motive, while simultaneously being a guide, for further excursions.
Scientific coordinator: Yiannis Pikoulas (assistant professor, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly)
Scientific research and documentation: Evanghelia Eleftheriou (archaeologist), Yiannis Pikoulas (professor, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly)
The cultural reserve of the Peloponnese: In collaboration with other similar institutions (comprising, among others, the Lambrakis Foundation and the Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation), PIOP participated in a joint venture that implemented a programme for the development of social entrepreneurship in the Peloponnese in the field of cultural tourism, through the valorisation of the region's cultural reserve (Joint venture "Kaleidoscopio", Community Initiative Equal Crescent, supervisory body: Hellenic Ministry of Labour). The Foundation supported scientific studies (inventory and survey of the cultural reserve of the Region of Peloponnissos), which were carried out in the framework of the project's implementation with the participation of members of the Research and Promotion Department in the project's different groups. A collective volume with the programme's results, titled "And the land bore olives. The presence of the olive tree in the Peloponnese " (ed. Eleni Beneki), was published and has been included in the PIOP's Publication series, also enriching the collection of books for sale at the Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil in Sparta.
Project Presentation (in greek)
The antimony mines in Keramos on Chios: Following a proposal by the Regional Administration of the Prefecture of Chios with a view to exploiting the mining installations of antimonite in the Community of Keramos on Chios and transforming them into museum premises, PIOP undertook the necessary research for drafting a preliminary scheme, including measure drawings. Between 1871 and 1908, the mines were exploited by the French company Soci?t? Anonyme de Mines de Keramos, which created a complete mining operation in the vicinity of Keramos and the neighbouring coastal region of Agiasmata. Forty years later, and over the short period of 1949-1954, the mines were worked by Ellinikai Metalleutikai Epicheiriseis Soci?t? Anonyme (Hellenic Mining Companies S.A.). The research concerned the company's history, the history and technology of mining activity and the region's economic and social history and is based on archival and field ethnographical research.
Scientific coordinator: Antonios Z. Franghiskos (mineralogist, professor emeritus, NTUA)
Scientific research and documentation: Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist), Nikos Belavilas (architect), Vasso Trova (architect-engineer), Andromachi Economou (ethnologist)
Lavrion Historical Archaeological Park: The programme's objective was to highlight the culture of Lavreotiki, the region around the town of Lavrion, which is linked to the exploitation of the vicinity's mines and the production of silver and lead from ancient times through to the 20th century. Ancient Lavrion was a region dotted with installations such as mining galleries, wells, reservoirs, rectangular and circular ore washers, forges and furnaces, organized workshops, crushing and pressing installations. Modern Lavrion was the sole industrial town in Greece to belong to the model of a company town, a worker's settlement built in an uninhabited region for the needs of a specific industrial activity, featuring important engineering works and noteworthy specimens of industrial architecture. Together with the notable monuments of the surrounding natural habitat and the region's antiquities, this industrial complex makes Lavrion a propitious example of a region that can aspire to a new phase of development based on cultural and alternative tourism.
Scientific research and documentation: Evanghelos Kakavogiannis (archaeologist, Hellenic Ministry of Culture), Aspasia Louvi (archaeologist), Ourania Mari (architect, Hellenic Ministry of Culture), Yiorgos Machairas (architect), Gerasimos Panagiotopoulos (civil engineer), Stathis Papoutsis (mechanical engineer), Yiannis Tsalapatas (civil engineer)
The mines of Serifos: The island of Serifos constitutes an open-air museum on the mining activity of its inhabitants, from ancient times to the present. The island's interior is scored by mining shafts constructed above its ore seams. Its ports were transformed into loading stations for its minerals, while the island's social and economic life through the ages is tied to its mines.
Following a proposal by the island's local authorities, a research programme was undertaken with a view to exploiting and promoting the mining installations on Serifos through the creation of an Open-Air Museum of Mining Activities and Mineral Resources of Serifos at Megalo Livadi. The research programme concerned the gathering of data and documentary material from both local (company archives, municipal archives, the mortgage registry's archives, archives of the miners' union, private archives) and other archival sources, completed by the oral testimonies of workers and inhabitants of the island. The research centred around two main axes: mining activity in Greece, from ancient times to the present (with a particular emphasis on Serifos and Lavrion), and the mining activity on Serifos over the period 1861-1964 (geology and mineral resources, the mines' commercial exploitation, production process, labour force, impact on the island's economy and society).
Scientific coordinator: Dr Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Marinella Katsilieri (historian), Dr Nikos Belavilas (architect), Dr Andromachi Economou (ethnologist), Vasso Trova (architect), Antonis Franghiskos (mineralogist, professor emeritus, NTUA), Dimitra Mavrokordatou (architecture student, NTUA), Theodoros Maniatakos (architecture student, NTUA)
History of Greek typography (15th-20th century) : A research programme whose results will be used to create a Museum on the Technology of Paper and Greek Typography and for the publication of a corresponding monograph. The programme centred on uncovering the technology of Greek typography from the 15th to the 20th century. It included the designing, engraving and use of typographical characters and the printing machines used in the printing houses of Greek books in Italy (15th-19th century), German-speaking regions (18th-19th century), France (16th-19th century), Britain and the United States (late 18th-20th century), but also in the East (1627-1821) and in Modern Greece (1821-2000).
The programme's main thematic axes were: a) the engraving and casting of Greek type and ornaments, b) typesetting and composition/page layout, manual typesetting, linotype and monotype, c) wood engraving, copper-plate engraving, lithography, colour lithography and zinc engraving, d) the printing machines (wooden presses, wooden with metal parts, metal presses; manual, steam-operated and electricity-powered presses; flat presses, vertical presses, cylindrical presses). The purport of the programme was to take inventory of and preserve the printing presses and the technology used to publish Greek books, in Greece and abroad, over a period spanning four centuries. As the subject has an international dimension, a bibliographical approach was used to realize this programme, which was followed up by field visits and research in museums, as well as by visits and inventories taken in the locations where Greek printing machines are stored.
Lastly, the research work focused on Corfu, as it was the principal centre of typography in Greece during the 19th and 20th century.
Scientific coordinator: Trantafyllos Sklavenitis [research director at the Institute for Neohellenic Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (INE/EIE)]
Scientific research and documentation: Nikos Galanos (millwright), Eleni Kalafati (architect, historian, scientific collaborator NTUA), Spiros Kapitsas (consultant on mechanical equipment and operation modes), Yannis Kokkonas (associate professor, Department of Archival-Library Sciences, Ionian University), Christos Manoussaridis (consultant on typography operations), Klimis Mastoridis (Ph.D. from the Department of Typography and Graphic Communication, University of Reading), Christina Banou (lecturer, Department of Archival-Library Sciences, Ionian University), Dimitris Pavlopoulos (lecturer, Department of History-Archaeology), Marietta Servou (historian), Mary Schina (engraver, lecturer at the Athens School of Fine Arts), Haralambos Hatzakoglou (byzantinologist), Evgenia Kremmyda (historian), Vivi Perraki [historian, collaborator of the Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (Paris)]
Oral testimonies (Corfu): Scientific coordinator: Evdokia Olympitou (ethnologist, assistant professor, Ionian University)
Research: Petros Bobolis [member of the Laboratory Teaching Staff Union (EEDIP), Department of Foreign Languages, Translation and Interpreting, Ionian University], Eleni Kyramargiou (doctoral student, University of the Aegean), Sofia Mattheou (research associate INE/EIE), Vallia Rapti (post-graduate student, Ionian University)
Project Presentation (in greek)
The technology of paper: A three-year research programme concerning the history of the technology of paper and papermaking, both on an international level and in Greece, was carried out as part of the preparation of a Museum of the Technology of Paper and Greek Typography.
Paper was approached from its international dimension, starting off with its forerunners and affiliated materials [prehistoric writing materials, papyrus, bark cloth (tapa, amatl, etc.), parchment and vellum]. The invention of paper and the origins of papermaking in China and Japan and its spread through the wider Islamic world (Arabs, Persians, al-Andalus, Ottoman empire), Arab and Indian papermaking and the particularities of indigenous techniques, the course of paper in Northern Africa and the question of its production in Muslim Iberia (8th-15th century) were completed with a brief survey on papermaking in Central Asia and by Turkish tribes.
Papermaking in Europe over the period preceding typography constituted the research project's central axis. The Moorish heritage in the Iberian Peninsula and the passage of papermaking from Al-Andalus to the dominion of the Catholic kings, the role played by the Jews in propagating the art of papermaking outside the Iberian Peninsula, the Italian town of Fabriano and the new energy outlook created by the application of the rotary shaft, the first innovations in Italian papermaking (frames with fixed grid lines and line drawing watermarks), the Nuremberg paper mill and the new technical improvements were considered as being its first stages. European papermaking was also examined with regard to the workshops' geographical distribution, raw materials, equipment, tools, the labour force and its productivity, the qualities of paper, the demand for handwritten books ("codices") and other uses on the eve of the invention of typography.
A series of questions were analyzed concerning European typography's prehistory: the influence of book publishing on papermaking and the first exports of European books, the full-blown development of the medium-sized workshop with multiple batteries of water hammers ("stampers"), the craft's propagation on the American continent, and especially in Mexico and the British colonies in Northern America. The invention of the "Hollander" (a drum with a central roller comprising a series of knives that reduced rags to pulp), an important technical advance of the early 18th century, which continues to be in operation to this day, as well as the technological changes in the tools, materials and watermarking techniques, were recorded as important developments in this sector. However, the increase in the demand for paper during the Enlightenment, and the new uses for it by ever-wider portions of society, resulted in an obvious scarcity of raw materials. In the papermaking workshop of late pre-industrial Europe, which stood on the verge of the industrial revolution, the search for new raw materials and means of increasing production was frantic. In the period of industrial papermaking, the invention of the paper machine (1799) and its evolution over the 19th century influenced both typography and the search for new raw materials.
Particular emphasis was given in the programme's overall conception to the collection of data on the history of the use and production of paper in Greece (from Byzantine times through to the contemporary Greek paper industry). The programme was carried out by a group of researchers, which included historians, architects and chemists. The programme's results were presented at a one-day conference on "The history of paper" held in the Foundation's Multipurpose Hall on July 5, 2005 and resulted in a special publication on the history of paper in Greece titled "Pulp and paper industries in Greece, 19th-20th century", which is now part of the Foundation's Publication series.
Scientific coordinators: Marinos Vlessas (architect), Maria Malakou (architect-engineer)
Research group on paper in Greece: Christos Loukos (professor of History, University of Crete)
Scientific research and documentation: Marinos Vlessas (architect), Athina Zisimopoulou (historian), Maria Malakou (architect), Ikaros Mantouvalos (historian), Aim? Konstantinos Mansour (chemist), Sofia Mattheou [research associate, Institute for Neohellenic Research/National Hellenic Research Foundation (INE/EIE)], Margharita Alexiou (architect), Eleni Emmanoulopoulou (architect), Melpo Sta?kou (chemist)
Watermarks of the Benaki Museum's collections: A research programme titled Study of the watermarks of the Benaki Museum's drawing sketches and, through them, of the history of the trading of paper in Greece from the 16th to the 19th century was carried out, its objective being, on the one hand, the creation of a database on these watermarks, accessible to both institutions so as to facilitate further research and, on the other, the watermarks' study (image detection, identification and dating), that makes it possible to draw conclusions about the paper's provenance, identify the paper mills that produced it and discover the organization of the trading of paper in Greece over the aforementioned period.
More specifically, the study's first stage concerned the watermarks of the study drawings (pouncing) belonging to the Benaki Museum's Department of Engravings, Etchings and Sketches using the beta-radiography method, which gives the most accurate tracing of the watermark, so that the study and identification of the paper mill and the paper's year of production become feasible. Achieved using a sheet impregnated with Carbon-14 and special photographic film in the form of a photographic plate (Agfa-Industrex M) due to the material's low radioactive nature (Carbon-14), this phase was executed at the National Hellenic Research Foundation (Institute for Biological Research and Biotechnology & Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute) under the responsibility of its chairman, Ion Siotis. The study's second phase was carried out at the Benaki Museum (Department of Documentation) and concerned the transfer and storing of the watermarks' contact images from the photographic plates to a digital medium and the indexing of each watermark in a special database. The study's third phase comprised the visual reconnaissance, identification and dating of the watermarks with the aid of specialized manuals (corpus of watermarks) found in large libraries and museums outside of Greece (British Library, British Museum, Paper and Watermark Museum of Fabriano in Italy).
Scientific coordinator: Maria Vassilaki (archaeologist, scientific collaborator of the Benaki Museum)
Scientific research and documentation: Triantafyllia Kanari (art historian), Duran Kalaidjian (engineering graduate, NTUA)
Information on technology from the Archives and Libraries of Venice: A five-year research programme in collaboration with the Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies of Venice, aimed at locating information in the Archives and Libraries of Venice on subjects relating to technology, with an emphasis on Greek territories under Venetian rule. The relevant archival material was stored in the form of microfilms (for texts) and slides/photographs (in the case of documents, e.g. sketches, maps, etc.) and has been brought together in a special electronic database containing around 2,500 records, accessible to researchers at PIOP's Library. Thanks to this database, Greek scientists and scholars can discover the technological facts of Venetian rule in the Greek provinces, even when they do not possess the necessary tools to approach these sources (knowledge of palaeography, familiarization with the Venetian dialect, experience in using archival sources, etc.).
The programme's goal was to collect information contained in Venetian archival, library and cartographic sources on the technology that the Most Serene Republic either applied, or intended to apply, in its possessions in the Levant. This technology was based on the know-how at its disposal and which obviously echoed that of Western civilization during the Renaissance and the early Modern times. To a certain degree, and essentially during the early centuries, it is also Byzantine know-how, now traceable with difficulty through archaeological documents, rare topographical depictions and extremely few texts. The sovereign power's intention was to "graft" its possessions with its know-how, by applying its own organization's basic structure so as to incorporate them organically into its colonial rule. As the relevant information is now available to us only as a part of more global proposals or reports of Venetian officials in the East, the degree to which the possessions' Greek populations made use of this technology needs to be assessed after carrying out the necessary exhaustive research regarding the remaining monuments in the aforementioned possessions.
Research centred on the State Archives of Venice, the Marcian Library, the libraries of the Museo Correr and the Fondazione Querini Stampalia, as well as on the Hellenic Institute's Old Archive; in addition, it also covered a series of other Venetian libraries and archives. Its priority was to index archival series containing the reports of officials and the material originating from the secretariats of Venetian administrative organs responsible for monitoring engineering work carried out in regions of the Eastern Mediterranean or for overseeing the improvement of these regions' agricultural crops. The private archives of officials and engineers were also indexed. The documents were encountered in a wide range of diverse sources (in 45 different archival and library series), such as petitions, reports, decisions, memorandums, court proceedings, letters, requests, manuals, cadastres and land registers, epistolariums, descriptions of islands and island registers, travel journals, diagrams and topographical maps. The period covered by the material stretches from the early 15th to the late 18th century.
As for the thematology covered by these documents, it should be noted that the maps and drawings that have been found either mention or depict production or construction installations (mills, salt-works, shipyards, reservoirs, powder mills, etc.), as well as organized regions of cultivation. Moreover, there are construction plans of forts, buildings (lazarettos, hospitals and orphanages, monasteries, inns, etc.), apparatus (such as boat hoists, water lines, oil presses, but also fire extinguishers), salt-works, ships, warehouses (granaries and powder magazines), workshops and other construction works such as roads and bridges, ports and irrigation projects, carried out essentially in Greek regions under Venetian rule - around forty different Greek regions' place-names are encountered in the database. An initial observation one can make about the documents that have been gathered is that the main bulk of the information thus collected about Greek regions concerns the Venetians' fortifications/military preparation.
An initial presentation of the databank was made in the framework of the annual Activity Report of the Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies of Venice, while its official presentation took place during a special one-day conference held at the Foundation's Multipurpose Hall on September 10, 2005. The database continues to be enriched with summaries of the texts and the transcription of the memorandums that in certain cases accompany the collected documents. The databank's users can then address themselves to the corresponding Archives and Libraries for authorization to use the documents in publications.
Scientific coordinator: Chryssa Maltezou (director of the Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies of Venice)
Scientific research and documentation: Irini Papadaki (philologist), Anastasia Stouraiti (historian)
Transcription - translation of sources: Ourania Karayanni
Database supervision: Eleni Beneki - Yiorgos Ananiadis
Brick and tile manufacturing: A research programme whose goal was to study brick- and tile-making techniques in order to prepare the permanent exhibition of the Rooftile and Brickworks Museum in the Tsalapatas complex in Volos (Thessaly), which became part of the Foundation's Network of Thematic Museums in 2006. The research concerned a survey of the branch both on an international level and in Greece, the study of the specific industrial unit's historical trajectory accompanied by a detailed documentation of its mechanical equipment, as well as a study of the manufacturing technology of its clay-ceramic products.
The study of the technology of brick and tile manufacturing concerned the detailed description of its various stages, from the clay's preparation during the pre-industrial [outdoor exposure, moistening-soaking, biological fermentation-maturing, cleaning, wedging (i.e. the clay's "kneading")] and industrial period (grinding or milling), the clay's shaping (pre-industrial period: moulding or die-pressing, industrial period: mechanical die-pressing, extrusion, dry pressing) and the drying process, through to the products' firing (pre-heating or water-smoking, low-temperature firing, firing, cooling) and the different types of kiln (Roman kiln, outdoor charcoal kiln, permanent outdoor kiln, annular kiln or Hoffman kiln, tunnel-type furnace or tunnel kiln). A correspondence was established with the equivalent stages as known to us in ancient times, while for Modern Greece specific cases of traditional potteries were sought so as to highlight the dominant techniques applied in Greece during the pre-industrial period (in Thessaly, on Thassos, Kythira, Kythnos, Lesvos, Sifnos). Lastly, as the mechanization of the production of bricks and roof tiles brought about corresponding changes both to the clay's composition (physiochemical and mechanical characteristics) and to the end products' dimensions and shape (geometrical features), the differences between industrial and pre-industrial products were recorded.
As regards brick- and tile-making in Greece over the 19th-20th century, the branch's evolution was examined from the seasonal artisan activity through to industrial production in the 19th century, while in the case of the 20th century, interest focused on: the products, imports and exports, the protectionist policy, Greek companies manufacturing tile and brick-making machinery, the relations between employers and employees (as revealed through the material of the Insurance Fund of Brickworks Workmen and Potters, employers' associations and labour unions) and a more detailed description of the branch's firms, which functioned scattered all over the country covering local needs.
As the planned Rooftile and Brickworks Museum was going to become a museum of its own self, it was considered necessary to include a detailed historical overview of the Tsalapatas firm. This was based on the company's archives, the registries of the Labour Centre of Volos, the proceedings of the Municipality of Volos' Council, interviews with heir, Aris Tsalapatas, and the factory's machinist, Zacharias Karvidas. The company's operations were placed in the wider context of the industrial history of Volos (conditions of the secondary sector's emergence in Volos during the last two decades of the 19th century, its consolidation and expansion during the first two decades of the 20th century, the crisis of the 1930s, the war and the period of restructuring up to the 1960s). The Tsalapatas family, the people, the regime of property ownership and the various business activities that were developed in parallel to brick manufacturing completed the picture of the firm's nature.
The factory itself constituted a central research object: the different stages of its development were recorded, from the small unit of 1917 to the new plant of the 1920s, as well as the changes implemented in the wake of the 1954-56 earthquakes, its mechanical equipment, its infrastructure, the factors that ensured the necessary know-how regarding orders, adjustments, the machinery's functioning, maintenance and repairs, the systems used by the factory to transport the raw materials and the products (DECAUVILLE railway, carts and motorized vehicles), the question of the raw material's quality and the difficulties related to ensuring this quality, the plant's products (categories, technical characteristics, produced quantities, etc.), the company's finances, the clientele network and the competition from similar firms, as well as information on the firm's personnel, periodical employment fluctuations, the workers' specializations, positions in the production chain, remunerations, trade union organization, workers' claims and strikes, and the relation between the management and the workers.
Scientific coordinators: Christina Agriantoni (professor of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly), Sakis Hadzigogas (mechanical engineer) Scientific research and documentation: Christina Agriantoni (professor, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly), Dr. Yannis Antoniou (historian), Dimitra Vassiliadou (historian), Vassilis Kolonas (architect), Sofia Koussiantza (historian), Vassilis Kylikoglou (researcher, Institute of Materials Science, National Centre of Scientific Research "Demokritos"), Sakis Sismanidis (mechanical engineer), Sakis Hadzigogas (mechanical engineer)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Marble carving and sculpting: With a view to preparing the Museum of Marble Crafts on Tinos, the Foundation coordinated a research programme on the technology of marble, a material occupying a particular place in Greece's architecture and art from ancient times to the present. The programme's main thematic axes concerned the raw material and its geological dimension, the technology of marble during the pre-industrial period, the identification of the different historical phases and the parallels with ancient times and the use of marble in Neoclassicism (especially in neoclassical Athens), as well as the tradition of marble through its influence on the work of renowned Greek sculptors.
The research programme's main findings include the systematic inventorying and understanding of traditional marble-related techniques (quarrying and transportation of the raw material, processing in the workshop) and the identification of their parallels with the techniques of Classical Greece, while also shedding more light on turning points in their evolution during the periods of Byzantium and Neoclassicism.
Particular emphasis was given to pre-industrial and proto-industrial Tinos, the most important centre of marble carving and sculpting in Modern Greece. The social and economic context in which the local workshops developed was examined, as well as the traditional work methods of the quarryman and marble craftsman, the strong presence of marble across the width and breadth of the island, and the use of marble by artists and for construction work in Modern Greece. The programme's module concerning the Tinian tradition was based on field research and the study of quarries, slab-splitting installations, workshops and technical processes (extraction-initial hewing, transportation, shaping of marble), as well as of the tools used by quarrymen and marble craftsmen (tool corpus of Modern Greek marble crafts); it also relied on archival documents, oral interviews and the identification of a number of similar ethnographic documents and investigated the social and economic structures that complete the technological phenomenon (organization of production, labour, clientele, mentalities). Except for the content of significant modules presented in the Museum of Marble Crafts, the results of the research centred on Tinos provided the material for a special publication, and for a short film, which was awarded a prize at the AGON Archaeological Film Competition in 2008.
Scientific coordinator: Alekos Florakis (folklorist-ethnologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Yiangos Yaxoglou (agronomist-topographer), Efthymios Gartzos (professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Agricultural University of Athens), Maro Kardamitsi-Adami (professor of Architecture, NTUA), Georgia Kokkorou-Alevra (professor of Classical Archaeology, Department of History-Archaeology, University of Athens), Maria Malakou (architect), Fani Mallouchou-Tufano [archaeologist, head of the Documentation Office of the Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA)], Haralambos Bouras (professor emeritus, NTUA), Stelios Papadopoulos (ethnologist-museologist), Christos Patalas (agronomist-topographer), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer), Olga Filaniotou (head of the 20th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities), Alekos Florakis (folklorist-ethnologist)
The technology of silversmithing: The objective of the research on the sector of silversmithing was to prepare the corresponding museum in Ioannina, which will present its main traditional techniques as applied there until roughly the mid-20th century. Research focused on finding the tools used in the application of individual techniques and locating craftsmen who, even to a lesser degree, still use traditional methods and whose testimony could be exploited for the exhibition's needs. In parallel, an effort was made to acquire objects that document the production techniques and, as far as possible, represent the entire spectrum of products through the ages. A further objective was that of collecting archival and older photographic material about these activities. The findings regarding the more distant and recent past were of assistance in outlining the historical, economic and social context of both the town of Ioannina and the wider region, where the craftsmen were renowned for the silver items they produced for either ecclesiastic or secular uses.
" Technique: Until relatively recently, Greek silversmiths followed methods established in far older times. As early as in the 12th century, a handbook by the German monk Theophilus gave a detailed description of the workshop, tools and main processes for producing objects made of silver. Over the centuries, local political, economic and social conditions, and in some cases even mentalities, shaped and differentiated the local traditions. The development of technology, the introduction of waterpower as a source of power, and the use of machines for achieving energy and labour savings, signal the end of the Middle Ages in Western Europe and the gradual transition to the industrial era. In Greece, the rate of growth remained low, which explains why the pre-industrial era lasted up to approximately the mid-20th century. As of the late 19th century, due to emigration and the fact that many craftsmen moved to large towns, metalworking centres such as Stemnitsa and Nymfaion fell into decline. Up to the very recent past, goldsmiths recycled, "lagarizan" (i.e. refined), old silverware so as to acquire the necessary raw materials, i.e. silver and gold from gilt items. In the case of the production of the jewellery worn with traditional local costume, the alloy proportions of silver and copper or bronze, called "ayari", varied from region to region; the silver used for liturgical objects was usually of a higher grade. Before the workshops' gradual modernization, hand-worked bellows were the prime source of energy. Master silversmiths made silver leaf thanks to hammering and shaped the object by the same means. For small cast pieces of jewellery they used matrices made of cuttlefish bone. For larger objects, they poured the silver into "panteftia", metal frames filled with special earth. Gilding was done with an amalgam of mercury and gold. Filigree jewellery was made of silver wire pulled on the "syrtis" (a guide block with a series of holes to create finer and finer wire), in the same way as today. The same practices, too, are followed today in decorating techniques: the object is immobilized on a lump of tar and "distended" from the inner side so as to create the design that will appear in relief on the outer surface, before the chiselling and engraving work is carried out on the right side. Up to the present, one can observe the workshops' modernization in urban centres with the introduction of changes in their organization and working methods, but also the parallel continuation of traditional silversmithing. However, as of the early 20th century, the demand for objects made of precious metals is increasingly covered by items produced industrially and by imports (Yiota Economaki-Papadopoulou).
Scientific coordinators: Yiota Economaki-Papadopoulou (art historian), Varvara Papadopoulou (head of the 8th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities of Ioannina)
Scientific research and documentation: Agla?a Tsiara (archaeologist), Penelope Kitsiou (archaeologist)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Traditional occupations and environment in Stymfalia: The Stymfalia basin is the southernmost mountain wetlands of the Balkans. It comprises the largest mountain lake of the Peloponnese where, according to Greek mythology, Hercules confronted the Stymphalian birds. Its interest resides principally in the lake's rich organic world and in the surface or subterranean routes through which the water circulates. The local environmental conditions directly influence the activities of the region's inhabitants, who are mainly occupied in farming and cattle breeding. The inhabitants adapt themselves to the prevailing conditions and develop techniques that allow them to cover specific needs of their way of living. These activities are directly linked to the region's microenvironment and the historical time in its relatively short (Ottoman rule, modern and contemporary Greek history) or longer term (mythology, archaeological findings).
The research programme carried out to prepare the Museum of the Environment of Stymfalia, which is scheduled to rejoin the Foundation's Museum Network in the near future, concerned the environment and the traditional occupations in the region of Stymfalia, as well as their dialectic relationship. Research work centred on environmental, hydrological and geological studies regarding the region of Stymfalia: flora, fauna, biotopes, the lake's natural landscape (its characteristics and alterations). Human activities were also studied, as well as the manners in which these influenced the landscape through the uses and coverage of the land in the region, as well as manmade impact on the local biotopes. Proposals were also formulated regarding nature walks of particular interest for the future Museum's visitors in the wider Stymfalia region, so that they might "experience" the knowledge acquired through their museum visit. Within the context of the ethnological studies, various subjects were investigated, such as the traditional chores and work related to the "cycle of water and land" (fishing, farming, viticulture, cattle breeding, hunting, etc.), the hydraulic works for Lake Stymfalia's water supply and the history of the ancient town of Stymphalus. The research was based on archival and published sources directly connected to the region (travellers, scientists, local scholars, local press, etc.) and special issues (e.g. the "Stymfalian issue", the winegrowers' cooperative movement, transhumance, etc.), and on gathering oral testimonies.
By presenting the region's geological features, water resources, flora and fauna, as well as data on mankind's presence and activity, the Museum of the Environment of Stymfalia aims to project the interdependence between mankind and nature and their harmonious coexistence in the Stymfalia basin. Focusing on two essential goals, i.e. the public's ecological sensitization and the preservation of traditional technology, the project hopes to become an important unit serving the ecological education of people in Greece and an institution that strengthens alternative tourism in the wider Stymfalia region.
Scientific coordinator: "Environment": Dr. Nikos Yannakis (biologist-environmentalist)
"Traditional occupations": Fotini Tsimbiridou (social anthropologist, associate professor, Democritus University of Thrace)
Scientific research and documentation: Dimitris Argyropoulos (civil engineer-environmentalist), Dionyssis Vassiliadis (biologist), Angela Georganta (architect-engineer), Dr. Vassiliki Yakoumaki (social anthropologist), Yiorgos Yannatos (biologist), Kostas Grivas (agriculturalist), Katerina Dede (historian), Grigoris Theodoridis (graduate in History-Ethnology), Yannis Ioannidis (biologist), Dr. Yiorgos Katsadorakis (biologist), Tzeni Langadinou (geologist), Dr. Yannis Lolos (archaeologist), Dr. Yiorgos Lyras (geologist), Maria Mexia (archaeologist), Evdokia Olympitou (ethnologist, assistant professor, Ionian University), Kostas Papakonstantinou (ornithologist), Stathis Sayias (forester), Athina Hadzidimitriou (archaeologist).
Filming: Panayiotis Economopoulos (cameraman)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Musical events in Northern Greece: The Foundation collaborated with the Hellenic Folklore Research Centre of the Academy of Athens so as to record the musical events held in Northern Greece, as well as local customs surrounding the carnival period and the summer months. Through a selective yet representative presentation of the musical culture of Greece's northern regions, the project attempted to allude to the internal differentiations and the interethnic relations and affinities, and to show the manners in which music is used as a vehicle that establishes and projects ethnic or local identity. As far as possible, music was approached through the processes leading to its production and consumption, and was examined in conjunction with specific cultural data relating to the group of reference, such as its religion, idiom, or even the invisible repercussions of historical and political circumstances. The programme was carried out thanks to field research by a specialized team, made up of an ethnologist and specialized photographers and camerapersons. In the course of the 14 missions realized in total, it was possible to locate and record, primarily, the traditional musicians who:
-" play typical musical instruments of Northern Greece: zournas (a double-reeded instrument similar to an oboe), ga?da (a type of bagpipes), lyra (a three-stringed instrument), klarino (a keyed, Albert-system clarinet), daouli (a two-headed drum hanging from a belt or a strap over the shoulder), different types of flogera (flutes);
-" play at typical local ritual events: twelve-day and pre-Lenten carnivals with disguises and bells, festivals with wrestling matches, festivals of the anastenarides (who, in a trance-like state, dance on burning coals), etc.;
-" represent or have as their audience the main population groups, as defined by their cultural terms or ethnic-cultural self-determination: local Greek-speaking, Slav-speaking or Turkish-speaking groups, Christians or Muslims (Sunnites or Bektashis), descendants of refugees (e.g. from the Pontus, Cappadocia, Rumelia), etc.
Scientific coordinator: Miranda Terzopoulou (researcher, Hellenic Folklore Research Centre of the Academy of Athens)
Scientific research and documentation: Sotiris Anastassiadis (director-cameraman), Nikos Dionyssopoulos (music researcher-sound recorder-music publisher), Athina Kazolea (photographer), Apostolos Karakassis (director-cameraman), Elpida Skoufalou (camerawoman-director).
Project Presentation (in greek)
Letter-cards of Crete: Accepting the research challenge that the deciphering of haphazard representations and their use as historical sources represents, the Foundation carried out a research programme aimed at valorising a series of letter-cards from the private collection of Mr. Michalis Sallas, chairman of the Piraeus Bank, which concern the history of Crete and led to a special publication. The collection's material highlights the history of the Cretan landscape over the important 1896-1913 period of the island's history, covering the years between the Cretan Christians' insurrection against Ottoman rule and the subsequent creation of an independent Cretan State through to the Crete's official union to Greece. The collection's comparison with other similar ones, proves it to be an outstanding documentary series on Cretan history. The collection is made up of approximately 500 letter-cards, which offer an opportunity to study, through images, the transition of a town when it passed from Ottoman rule to the regime of the national and constitutional State of the Kingdom of Greece, via the intermediary stage of the special privileges it enjoyed during the 1897-98 governance of the High Commission set up by the Great Powers. Commented and accompanied by the relevant historical documentation, the pictures disengage their informational, sentimental and political dynamics, creating a detailed image of the transformations of a town's urban landscape, as determined by political and regime changes. The historical and archival research needed to study these letter-cards showed them to be snapshots of a multifaceted reality. Over and above the scenes plainly depicted, and at the same time as revealing the photographers, intermediaries between the objective situation and its representation, some of the aspects deciphered through the letter-cards are: the administrative and demographic spheres, urban space and the living experience of the town, and Ottoman and Greek neoclassicism (as applied mainly in Heraklion).
Scientific coordinator: Nikos Karapidakis (professor, Department of History, Ionian University)
Scientific research and documentation: Manolis Drakakis (head of the General State Archives of Heraklion, Crete), Eleftheria Ze? (historian), Lena Tzedaki-Apostolaki (philologist, director of the Experimental Senior High School of Heraklion)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Philharmonic Society of Corfu: Founded in 1840, the Philharmonic Society of Corfu had as its prime goal the creation of a complete music academy and was the first such organized institution in Modern Greece. Following the Society's request, PIOP undertook a research programme on its history and drafted a volume of museological proposals for the projected creation of a museum of music-related objects and souvenirs in the historical building belonging to the Philharmonic Society.
Scientific research and documentation: Kostas Kardamis (doctoral student, Ionian University; instructor, Department of Music Studies, Ionian University)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Register of Greek Industrial Heritage: PIOP is a participant in the effort to constitute a Register of Greek Industrial Heritage, which is intended to list the pre-industrial and industrial heritage monuments throughout Greece and which is being undertaken on the initiative of the Greek section of the TICCIH with the participation of institutions such as the Ionian University, the University of Ioannina, the University of Thessaly, the National Hellenic Research Foundation and the Municipal History Centre of Volos. Already, the Foundation has completed the retroactive transcription, into the commonly accepted Bulletin of the aforementioned institutions, of the entire set of index-cards in which PIOP had listed relevant industrial heritage monuments in the course of its corresponding research programmes.
Transcription: Heraklitos Antoniadis
Project Presentation (in greek)
Scientific research for the planning of parallel activities at the Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil concerning an exhibition and the screening of a documentary on Greek emigration to the USA: In order to create a special exhibition module to accompany the temporary exhibition on "The Journey: the Greek American dream" in PIOP's Museum Network, it was considered needful to carry out a research project, which highlighted facets of the emigration of the inhabitants of the Laconia region to the United States in the early 20th century (but also during the post-war years), their return to their homeland, and the connections between their land of origin and the host country.
The chronic malaise of the Greek agricultural economy combined with the bountiful job offers in the USA gave rise to a massive wave of transatlantic emigration from Greece in the years after 1890. The first Greek immigrants to establish themselves in the United States in the 1870s were from Sparta. These pioneers gradually shaped the image of the "transatlantic dream bride", and created Lakonia's emigrating tradition, as well as the networks of relatives and neighbours that connected it to the USA. The monetary, material and cultural transfers of the "Brooklides" (the Greeks who resided, or had lived even briefly, in America) improved the living standards of the families that had remained behind and introduced new habits, values and mentalities. Those who returned to their homeland brought back with them memories they did not share with those who had remained behind and which they desired to preserve personally and collectively.
The research was targeted on locating objects belonging to the emigrants (memorabilia) and finding visual material (documents, photographs, letters, letter-cards, etc.), which were exhibited in a separate module on the emigration of Lakonia's inhabitants to the USA as part of the aforementioned temporary exhibition, and was based on written sources and oral testimonies.
Scientific coordinator: Lina Ventoura, (historian, assistant professor, Department of Social and Educational Policy, University of the Peloponnese)
Scientific research and documentation: Katerina Dede (historian), Eleni Kyramargiou (historian)
History of industry in Thessaloniki: A research programme whose results were used for an exhibition titled Thessaloniki, 1912-1940. Industry and City, which attempted, by means of drawings, maps, and written and archival material, to present the economic, social, town planning and technological changes brought about by industrialization to the city of Thessaloniki and its surrounds. Steam power, electricity, the railways, contemporary know-how, Greek and foreign banks, labour unions, cultural polymorphism and the city's new needs were highlighted through a multitude of exhibits and gave a complete overall image of Thessaloniki at this period of time.
Scientific coordinator: Stelios Papadopoulos
Scientific research and documentation: Vassilis Kolonas (architect), Olga Traganou-Deliyanni (architect)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Inventory of traditional workshops and cottage industries in Pelion: Believing a systematic census to be the only safe way to preserve the activities and technologies that have since been abandoned, the Foundation has undertaken a long-term research programme to record the existence of traditional workshops and cottage industries in the region of Mount Pelion. The entirety of the drawings and photographs will be digitized, so that, following the programme's completion, a database at the Foundation might be used to different ends.
Localization of workshops: Athanassios Paliouras (architect-engineer, head of the Department of Modern Monuments and Technical Works of Thessaly, Hellenic Ministry of Culture)
Historical/ethnographical documentation: Christina Agriantoni (professor of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly)
Architectural measure-drawings: Kostas Adamakis (associate professor, Department of Architects-Engineers, University of Thessaly)
Nikos Belavilas (associate professor, Department of Architecture, NTUA)
Scientific research and documentation:
Historical/ethnographical documentation: Aigli Dimoglou [historian, researcher at the Municipal Centre for Historical Research and Documentation (DIKI) of Volos], Vassilis Vlachakis (student of History-Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly), Yannis Stoyannidis (student of History-Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly), Marita Tsiadima (student of History-Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly)
Mechanical equipment: Vassilis Linardos (engineer)
Measure-drawings: architects: Evi Tzavella-Adamaki, Kostas Sarantis, Dimitra Kamvyssi, Elpiniki Pavlou - civil engineer: Anastasia Gerolymou
Architecture students: Stefanos Adamakis, Evanghelia Apostolou, Katerina Vassiliou, Sofia Garnara, Grigoris Grigoriadis, Marianna Drachtidi, Chrysostomos Theodoropoulos, Archonti Ioannou, Maria Kalikouni, Maria Karapatsa, Dora Kassiteropoulou, Elsa Kiourtsoglou, Konstantina Kolliopoulou, Maria Kontogirgou, Vassilis Kopanaras, Melia Kourtina, Marianna Lizardou, Dionysios Markoutsas, Dimitra Mavrokordatou, Evanghelos Moschonas, Eleni Boubari, Efi Nikolaou, Areti Nikolopoulou, Antonios Dovas, Eleni Panayotaki, Marianthi Pantazi, Natalia Pantelidou, Eva Papageorgiou, Ira Petromanolaki, Theodora Pyrogeni, Angeliki Siori, Virginia Sotiraki, Theodoros Toussas, Georgia Tsoli, Eleni Tsatsani, Irini Fountouli, Chryssoula Chelidonaki, Themis Christodoulou, Yiorgos Houssen, Alexandra Chronaki
Project Presentation (in greek)
The craft of tinsmith in the 20th century. The case of Georghios Hadzilaos: The objective of the research programme on The craft of tinsmith in the 20th century: the case of Georghios Hadzilaos is to study a pre-industrial technique, i.e. tin-smithing, with respect to the production, distribution and consumption of goods. The project concerns the ethnographical and historical recording of this pre-industrial technique, as well as the acquisition, restoration and museological exploitation of corresponding private collections (workshops) so as to put together the content of an itinerant temporary exhibition that will be presented in the PIOP Museum Network's Multipurpose Halls in the Greek provinces. The project's focal point was the study and presentation of the case of the craftsman tinsmith Georgios Hadzilaos (1909-1998), who was born in Alikarnassos (Asia Minor), learnt the craft in Kalymnos, where part of his maternal grandmother's family originated from, and worked in Athens from the 1930s until his death in 1998. The example at hand is of particular interest as, in parallel to the abundant oral testimonies of the craftsman's kin and friends, there exist important material remains of the tinsmith's trade (tools and products) -both in terms of quality and volume-, as well as written documentation of his personal and family history (photographic material, various documents, orders' ledger, etc.). The research is focused essentially on this specific craftsman, covering the creator and his craft from the production to the use of the items he made, in the social and economic context of that period. The case of craftsman Yiorgos Hadzilaou and his family offers itself to a micro-historical approach as, through it, one encounters crucial questions of contemporary Greek social and economic history of the 20th century: emigration/immigration, refugees, apprenticeship, salaried and itinerant labour, artisan production, (family, neighbourhood, clientele) networks. Through the micro-historical approach and anthropological angle of the specific example, it is feasible to study the history of a pre-industrial technique, that of tinsmithing, its technology and production process, as well as the trajectory of tinsmithing products from creator to end-user.
In addition, the technique's evolution from manual to cottage industry production was investigated, meaning that the study extended to the various applications and uses of tinsmithing in other cottage industry branches (e.g. case of the Makkas canning facility in Chios, whose machinery was acquired by the Foundation) examining in parallel the local differentiation of production according to the demand and daily needs of local communities. Thus, the research also included the following local examples of the craft's applications and evolution: Kalymnos, Tinos, Chios, Athens (Monastiraki, Psyrri, Nikaia and other), Xanthi and Komotini, with some sporadic and small-scale references to other production centres too.
Coordination: Clio Gougouli (social anthropologist, doctoral student University of London)
Scientific research and documentation: Yannis Gonatidis (post-graduate student, Department of History-Archaeology, University of Ioannina), Clio Gougouli (social anthropologist, doctoral student University of London), Leda Papastefanaki (lecturer of Contemporary Greek History, Department of History-Archaeology, University of Ioannina), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer)
Recording of cinematographic material: Panayiotis Economopoulos
Project Presentation (in greek)
Chios mastic gum: The island of Chios is inextricably linked -and to a certain degree justifiably- to mastic gum in terms of agriculture, trade and material culture. Its very history is attached to the production of mastic in its southern villages. The island's historical physiognomy was influenced by the geological and climatic conditions whose combination allow the pistachio lentiscus shrub -solely in Southern Chios- to "weep" and the mastic resin to crystallize into clear drops or grains, which are gathered right down to the very last one. Over its entire history, mastic has been considered a luxury product: it was known for its pharmaceutical uses and as a beauty product in ancient times, it was part of the precious spice trade from the East, it became part of the island's tribute to the Ottoman Sublime Porte and was the source of privileges. On the basis of available information, the know-how of mastic production has essentially remained unchanged over the centuries. The only differentiating factors concern the manner of its taxation and commercialization (intensification of trade since the time of Genoese rule), and the establishment of the Chios Mastic Growers Association. Consequently, the promotion of mastic gum presents itself as particularly fertile ground for the development of innovative applications with the objective of protecting, preserving and promoting the cultural heritage of both the island and the Aegean area. The Foundation is in the process of completing a research programme targeted at creating a Museum of Mastic on Chios; it comprises a series of studies (historical, ethnological, architectural and environmental) and the collection of archival and other primary material, including available oral testimonies and quantitative/archival data housed in electronic databases. The project concerns the history and know-how/technology of the exploitation of mastic gum in Chios, incorporated into the general body of the history of Chios, and is centred on questions of production, exploitation, commercialization and promotion of the monopolistic product of mastic gum through the ages and up to the present. The research group's members had the opportunity to announce and discuss some of their findings during the Foundation's 11th Three-Day Working Meeting (October 2008), which was dedicated to mastic gum.
Scientific coordinator: Eleni Beneki (historian ÌÁ)
Scientific research and documentation: Triantafyllos Adamakopoulos (engineer-environmentalist), Nikos ALevizakis (historian), Michalis Varlas (historian), Manolis Vournous (architect), Myropi Garri (economist), Maria Gerardi-Passali (engraver-costume specialist), Yannis Gonatidis (post-graduate student, Department of History-Archaeology, University of Ioannina), Kostas Grivas (environmentalist), Marina Koumanoudi (historian), Dimitris Loupis (historian), Lina Mendoni [archaeologist, senior research associate at the Institute for Greek and Roman Antiquity / National Hellenic Research Centre (KERA/EIE)], Evdokia Olympitou (ethnologist, associate professor, Ionian University), Antonis Plytas (electrical engineer), Leda Papastefanaki (lecture, Department of History-Archaeology, University of Ioannina), Stelios Parliaros (pastry chef), Marina Re?zaki (anthropologist), Irini Hadzitsakou (graduate of the Inter-Departmental Postgraduate Programme "Architectural Design, Space, Culture", NTUA), Filis Yassar (historian).
Filming: Maria Douza (director), Yannis Ekonomou (cameraman)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Register of companies and entrepreneurs of the prefecture of Messinia: In order to cover the existing void concerning the exploitation and commercialization of agricultural products in the prefecture of Messinia, the Foundation has undertaken a research programme whose objective is to create a database composed of two basic sections: "Bibliography regarding Messinia: Economy-Society-Techniques/Technology in Modern Times" and "Register of Companies and Entrepreneurs of Messinia, 19th-20th century". The project's aim is to make this database available to the scientific community (accessible through the Foundation's Library) and publish a book on entrepreneurship in the prefecture of Messinia.
Scientific coordinator: Maria-Christina Hadzi?oannou [research director at the Institute for Neohellenic Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (INE/EIE)]
Scientific research and documentation: Dimitra Vassiliadou (historian), Yannis Pelekoudas (computer programmer), Yiorgos Seremetakis (historian)
Project Presentation (in greek)
The production and trade of currants in the Western Peloponnese: Following the request made by local authorities, the Foundation is in the process of completing a research programme on the production and trade of currants in the region of the Western Peloponnese, the least studied geographical area where this grape variety is cultivated. In particular, the project focuses on the prefecture of Ilia and aims to produce a monograph, which will shortly be included in the Foundation's publication series.
Currant cultivation was a natural monopoly of the regions along the Corinthian Gulf and the western shores of the Peloponnese. The prefecture of Ilia was the largest region to have specialized in the production of the Corinthian raisin (the term 'currant' deriving from a mispronunciation of the word Corinth) and research supports that the introduction of the withholding and other measures that followed the currant crisis were, to a large extent, decreed due to the special conditions prevailing in this region. The research programme, which was carried out over a two-year period with the contribution of four specialized researchers, concerns all the relevant parameters: the importance of currants for the Greek economy up to the Second World War, the development of currant production in the prefecture of Ilia as of the late 1850s, the emergence of Pyrgos and Katakolos as major centres for the management and funding of currant production, the urban and man-made environment of Pyrgos (demographic evolution, town planning and municipal equipment), the social demands and ideological questioning, as well as the cultural dimension of the town's development. All of this is completed by the political restlessness in Pyrgos against the backdrop of the currant crisis, the political face of the prefecture of Ilia and the implication of the currant issue on the local and national political scene.
From early on, the research showed the central role played by the Corinthian Currant Cooperative (SKOS) in the product's management and turned, among others, to the Archives (of documents and other material) kept by this cooperative and which, because of the plethora and variety of documents relating to Corinthian raisins, constitutes a particularly distinctive source of information for scholars.
Scientific coordinator: Maria-Christina Hadziioannou [historian, research director at the Institute for Neohellenic Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation (INE/EIE)]
Scientific research and documentation: Dimitra Vassiliadou (historian), Stathis Koutrouvidis (historian), Alexis Frangiadis (economist)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Egyptian cotton: Extending its cultural intervention outside Greece's borders, the Foundation has undertaken to organize and coordinate a research programme on Egyptian cotton and the contribution of the Greeks of Egypt in cotton-growing, 19th-20th century. Through both primary sources and scientific studies on the Egyptian economy during the 19th century and through to the 1950s, it is known that «cotton is not only Egypt's staple product, it is also the main means of acquiring wealth, the barometer of the value of land, the sector undeniably occupying the most hands and the most capital». The greater part of the Greeks' involvement in Egyptian agriculture (and in Egypt's economy in general), concerns the sector of cotton-growing in all its various stages: the gathering of cotton seeds, its sowing, cultivation and irrigation methods, harvesting, storage, the buying and selling of cotton, the ginning process, the formation of prices on Alexandria's stock market (bourse), the export market, the industrial processing of cottonseed and the discovery of new varieties of cotton. In these activities, Greek inventors of new strains (most of whom hailed from villages of Mount Pelion) occupied a vital position. The research programme extends into the field of the intellectual and material culture of the Greeks of Egypt and offers the possibility of creating a corresponding thematic technological museum in one of Egypt's principal towns and of publishing a collective volume on the subject. Within this framework, historical data are being collected regarding the cultivation of cotton in Egypt (regime of land ownership, methods and innovations, human resources), its processing (and the technology relating to it), the cotton trade, but also the superstructure of this economic activity, with a particular emphasis on the Greek element (material and intellectual culture, social life and community organization).
Scientific coordinator: professor Chryssa Maltezou (director of the Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies of Venice), Alexandros Kitroeff (associate professor of History, Haverfïrd College, University of Pennsylvania)
Scientific research and documentation: Georgia Varzelioti (historian), Joel Beinin (professor of Middle East History, Department of History, Stanford University), Christos Hadziiosif (professor of History, University of Crete), Kenneth Cuno (Department of History, University of Illinois), Eric Davis (professor, Department of Political Science, Rutgers University), Nicholas S. Hopkins (professor of Anthropology at the American University in Cairo), Alexandros Kazamias (senior lecturer in Politics, Coventry University), Manolis Maragoulis (philologist, director of the Hellenic Foundation for Culture of Alexandria), Roger Owen (professor), Matoula Tomara–Sideri (professor, Department of Political Science & History, Pantios University), Katerina Trimi–Kyrou (philologist-historian), Efthymios Souloyannis (research director emeritus, Academy of Athens), Ioannis Zillis (engineer-collector)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Inventory of the industrial heritage of Albania: The Foundation has expanded its research activities to regions neighbouring Greece's borders with a view to clarifying the terms and processes that shaped the financial and productive conditions under which Greek -and other- populations are economically active in the region of the Balkan Peninsula. The inventory of industrial installations in Albania is part of this project, providing a clearer picture of the region's industrial landscape. The research group's fieldwork showed that the most important remains of pre-industrial and industrial units -whether still in operation or not- are located, almost exclusively, to the south of Tirana, in Central and Southern Albania. These regions had always been in direct contact with the urban centres of the West and the East thanks to the Egnatia road, whose overland section in the Balkans started off in the seaport of Durr?s (Dyrrachion). Field research discovered the existence of a woollen goods factory in Kor?? (Korytsa), dating back to the 1920s and still functioning, a flourmill with an electrical motor (the first of its kind) in Berati, a Morse telegraphy unit in the same town, but above all showed the amplitude and importance of the oil industry for Albania. Furthermore, given that, at the time of the inventory, the Albanian oil industry had yet to be modernized, it still retained the features of its proto-industrial past. At the same time, the perspective of the branch's imminent privatization means that this would obliterate these elements of the past. The research and processing of the initial data was followed by interviews with veterans of oil pumping and production, the documentation and photographing of old machinery (machine's type and use, technical characteristics, country of origin, etc.), and the recording of the main and auxiliary facilities of the oil-pumping industry in order to chart a complete historical retrospection of the history of oil production in Albania.
Scientific coordinator: Anastasia Tourta (archaeologist, director of the European Centre of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Monuments)
Scientific research and documentation: Kliti Kalamata (architect), Flora Karayianni (archaeologist), Ajet Nalbania (historian)
Project Presentation (in greek)
History of the Lyceum Club of Greek Women: For the upcoming occasion of the centenary since the Lyceum Club of Greek Women was founded, PIOP has undertaken the responsibility of recording and charting the Lyceum Club's course through history. In accordance with PIOP's policy, a scientific committee was formed to implement the project according to a two-year research programme, which will culminate with the publication of a collective anniversary volume. After examining the existing bibliography and locating the archival wealth, the project's contributors in terms of research and writing were chosen based on the criterion of their scientific activity, as well as taking into account their previous experience regarding the Lyceum Club's field of action and work. Contributors to the programme include historians, philologists, ethnologists and other specialties relating to the study of both popular culture and contemporary life in Greece. The projected volume will be composed of two main contributions regarding the presentation of the Lyceum Club's trajectory and a greater number of shorter, specialized contributions with an in-depth analysis of various aspects of its activities, which will advance the primary research by shedding more light on its physiognomy and work. In order to facilitate researchers' access to the Lyceum Club's archives and prepare the ground for their use in the aforementioned scheduled publication, PIOP was also responsible for overseeing the classification, cataloguing and digitization of the Lyceum Club's Photographic Archives. Lastly, a search for archival sources (written documents, photographs) was also carried out among institutions/organizations with which the Lyceum Club of Greek Women had been in contact or collaborated in the past.
In accordance, too, with PIOP's customary practice when research programmes concern a large number of collaborators, and in order to ensure the best conceivable osmosis among them and avoid covering the same ground twice and/or omissions, a special progress meeting was held on December 1st, 2008 at PIOP's headquarters, with the participation of the entire team, the Scientific Committee and a small number of members of the Lyceum Club of Greek Women.
Scientific Committee: Efi Avdela (professor, Department of History, University of Crete), Nikos Andriotis (historian, instructor at the Department of History-Archaeology, University of Athens), Aspasia Louvi (byzantinologist, general director of PIOP), Eleni Beneki (historian), Eleni Tsaldari (chairwoman of the Lyceum Club of Greek Women), Teti Hadzinikolaou (head of the Department of Modern Cultural Heritage, Hellenic Ministry of Culture)
Scientific research and documentation: Nikos Andriotis (historian, instructor at the Department of History-Archaeology, University of Athens), Evanghelia Antzaka-Ve? (folklorist), Dimitra Vassiliadou (doctoral student in History), Rena Loutzaki (anthropologist, associate professor, Department of Music Studies, University of Athens), Nadia Maha-Bizoumi (historian, doctoral student in Folklore Studies), Anna Mihopoulou (Ì.Á. in Women's Studies, instructor-researcher at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, scientific collaborator of the Lyceum Club of Greek Women's Historical Archives), Evdokia Olympitou (ethnologist, assistant professor, Ionian University), Eleni Protopapa (historian-archaeologist), Irini Rizaki (historian), Katerina Trimi-Kyrou (philologist-historian), Eleni Fournaraki (associate professor of Modern Social History, Department of Sociology, University of Crete), Anghelika Psarra (historian-journalist)
Project Presentation (in greek)
Archive of Musical Iconography: As a result of the fact that the Museum of Greek Musical Instruments in Thessaloniki was in need of serious documentation on a correct scientific basis, the Foundation collaborated with the Department of Music Studies of the Fine Arts School of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the Archives of Musical Iconography so as to resolve the issue. It turned out that research on this subject is constantly being developed by major research centres and thus, although the Museum closed, it was decided to continue this collaboration with the aforementioned university for a five-year period so as to continue the research work. The objective is to collect the material allowing to document as globally as possible the form and use of musical instruments in Greece during Prehistoric, Ancient Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Post-Byzantine and Modern times. The programme aims to bring together the iconographic and literary sources relating to musical instruments and musical activity in general for the periods under consideration and incorporate them into a digital database. This database will be accessible in PIOP's Library and will be accompanied by relevant informative material (glossaries of Ancient, Byzantine and Post-Byzantine musical instruments and terms, etc.) allowing both common users to familiarize themselves with this complex subject and further research (bibliographical and Internet sources, discography, etc.). In parallel, a small-scale exhibition of musical instruments was created around the collection of traditional instruments belonging to the Fine Arts' Department of Music Studies of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, which was completed with relative illustrative and informative material and digital projections. The research programme is completed by a -unique in Greece- scientific publication on Greek musical instruments, written by an international group of authors and which is scheduled to be included in the Foundation's series of Publications in the near future.
Scientific coordinator: Alexandra Goulaki-Voutyra (professor of Musical Iconography, Department of Music Studies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)
Scientific advisors: Maria Alexandrou (lecturer of Byzantine Musicology, Department of Music Studies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Dimitrios Themelis (professor emeritus of Historical Musicology, Department of Music Studies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Georgios Papadelis (associate professor, Department of Music Studies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Angeliki Pilali-Papasteriou (professor of Prehistoric Archaeology, Department of History and Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Kyriakos Tsantsanoglou (professor emeritus of Classical Literature, Department of Literature, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Dimitra Tsitsikli (associate professor of Classical Literature, Department of Literature, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)
Programme coordination: Antonia Roumbi (musicologist)
Scientific research and documentation: Evanghelia Tsangaraki (archaeologist - musical iconography of the prehistoric era), Anastassios Tyflopoulos (philologist - classical literature), Ileana Paraskevopoulou (philologist - medieval literature), Georghia-Antonia Moschou (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Michalis Kappas (archaeologist - musical iconography of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine period), Chionia Ghiliopoulou (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Sofia Angelidou (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Themis Veleni (art historian), Evanghelia Veli (philologist - medieval literature), Maria Voutsa (musicologist - musical iconography of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine period), Aristidis Gavrilis (philologist - medieval literature), Sofia Gourbatsi (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Ourania Zachartzi (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Athanassia Zgialtou (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Ioannis Theocharis (archaeologist - musical iconography of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine period), Irini Mytoussi (philologist - classical literature), Athanassios Mystakidis (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Maria Nassioula (archaeologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Evangelia Patsi (art historian), Antonia Roumbi (musicologist - musical iconography of Classical Antiquity), Elissavet Sotiroudi (philologist - medieval literature), Ilias Tsolakopoulos (philologist - classical literature), Markos Fafalias (archaeologist - musical iconography of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine period).
Technical support: Dimitrios Mamanginidis (software engineer)
Project Presentation (in greek)